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Title Effect of Adding Physical Links on the Robustness of the Internet Modeled as a Physical-logical Interdependent Network using Simple Strategies
Authors Ivana Bachmann, Valeria Valdés, Javier Bustos-Jiménez, Benjamin Bustos
Publication date March 2022
Abstract In this work we model the Internet as a physical-logical
interdependent network composed by the logical Internet network (Autonomous
System level network), the physical Internet network (Internet backbone),
and their interactions. We have tested the effect of adding physical links
over the Internet's robustness against both physical random attacks, and
localized attacks. We add links using strategies that are simple enough to
be used when information of the physical network is incomplete or not
accurate enough to use more complex strategies. To measure the effect of
adding links to the physical network our tests consider the logical network,
and the set of interlinks to be constant. We tested four physical link
addition strategies: random addition, distance addition, local hubs
addition, and degree addition, over three different physical network models:
Gabriel Graphs, n-nearest neighbors, and relative neighborhood graphs, and
two extreme space shapes based on the geography of real countries: a long
and narrow space with a width to length ratio of (1:25), and square space
with a (1:1) width to length ratio. Our results show that there are High
Damage Localized Attacks (HDLA): localized attacks that cause the failure of
more than half of the logical network after removing less than 9% of the
physical nodes. Some HDLA can even result in total failure. We found that
HDLA are caused by the failure of "bridge nodes" in the logical network.
Our results show that adding links to the physical network improves the
robustness against localized attacks, and physical random attacks. Adding
physical links also decreases the damage caused by HDLA, but does not fully
prevent them. We found that degree and random addition strategies improve
the Internet's robustness the most, while distance addition is the most
cost efficient link addition strategy in terms of robustness improvement. We
also found that the high robustness and low cost efficiency of random
strategy is related to the length of the links added, highlighting the
importance of simple features such as the length of the links added over the
robustness of physical-logical interdependent networks . Our findings
suggest that given cost constraints it may be better to add more physical
links using distance addition than it is to add fewer physical links using
degree or random link addition strategies, and that more cost efficient
versions of degree strategy could be obtained by simply limiting the length
of the links added by the strategy.
Pages article 100483
Volume 36
Journal name International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection
Publisher Elsevier Science (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Reference URL View reference page